Conditions & Treatments For The Diabetic Foot…
Diabetes is a serious disease that can develop
from the lack of insulin production in the body or due to the inability
of the body’s insulin to perform its normal everyday functions.
Insulin is a substance produced from the pancreas gland that helps process
the food we eat and turn it into energy.
Diabetes affects approximately 16 million Americans and is classified
into 2 different types: Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 is usually associated
with juvenile diabetes and is often linked through heredity. Type
2, commonly referred to as adult onset diabetes, is characterized
by elevated blood sugars, often by people who are overweight or have not
attended to their diet properly.
There are often many complications associated with diabetes. Diabetes
disrupts the vascular system, affecting many areas of the body such as
the eyes, kidneys, legs, and feet. People with diabetes should
pay special attention to their feet.
Neuropathy - Of the sixteen million
Americans with diabetes, 25% will develop foot problems related to the
disease. Diabetic foot conditions develop from a combination of
causes including poor circulation and neuropathy. Diabetic Neuropathy
can cause insensitivity or a loss of ability to feel pain, heat, and cold.
Diabetics suffering from neuropathy can develop minor cuts, scrapes, blisters,
or pressure sores that they may not be aware of due to the insensitivity.
If these minor injuries are left untreated, complications may result and
lead to ulceration and possibly even amputation. Neuropathy can
also cause deformities such as Bunions, Hammer Toes, and Charcot Feet.
It is very important for diabetics to take the necessary precautions to
prevent all foot related injuries. Due to the consequences of neuropathy,
daily observation of the feet is critical. When a diabetic patient
takes the necessary preventative foot care measures, it reduces the risks
of serious foot conditions.
Poor Circulation - Diabetes often leads to peripheral vascular
disease which inhibits a person’s blood circulation. With this condition,
there is a narrowing of the arteries that frequently leads to significantly
decreased circulation in the lower part of the legs and the feet.
Poor circulation contributes to diabetic foot problems by reducing the
amount of oxygen and nutrition supplied to the skin and other tissue,
therefore causing injuries to heal poorly. Poor circulation can
also lead to swelling and dryness of the foot. Preventing foot complications
is more critical for the diabetic patient since poor circulation impairs
the healing process, and can lead to ulcers, infection, and other serious
Proper footwear plays an important role in
diabetic foot care. Inserts designed with Plastazote "foam,"
the #1 material for protecting the insensitive diabetic foot, are usually
recommended. Plastazote is a material designed to accommodate pressure
"hot spots" by conforming to heat and pressure. By customizing
to the foot, Plastazote provides the comfort and protection needed in
diabetic foot care.
Diabetic Footwear should also provide the
following protective benefits:
- High, wide toe box (high
and wide space in the toe area)
- Removable insoles for fitting flexibility
and room for inserts, if necessary.
- Rocker Soles. These soles are designed
to reduce pressure in the areas of the foot most susceptible to pain,
most notably the ball-of-the-foot.
- Firm Heel Counters for support and stability.
If you are a diabetic, you should be particularly
alert to any problems you may be having with your feet. It is very
important for diabetics with neuropathy to take necessary precautions
to prevent injury and keep their feet healthy. If you have diabetes and
are experiencing a foot problem, immediately consult with your foot doctor.
Foot Care & Diabetes
Proper foot care is especially critical for diabetics because they
are prone to foot problems such as:
- Loss of feeling in their feet
- Changes in the shape of their feet
- Foot ulcers or sores that do not heal
Simple daily foot care can prevent serious
problems. According to the National Institute of Health, the following
are simple everyday steps that will help prevent serious complications
- Take Care of Your Diabetes
Make healthy life style choices to keep your blood sugar close to
normal. Work with your health care team to create a diabetes plan that
fits your life style characteristics.
- Check Your Feet Every Day
You may have foot problems that
you may not be aware of. Check your feet for cuts, sores, red
spots, swelling, or infected toenails. Checking your feet should
become part of your daily routine. If you have trouble bending over
to see your feet, use a plastic mirror to help. You can also ask
a family member to help you.
Important Reminder Be sure to call your doctor immediately if
a cut, sore, blister, or bruise on your foot does not heal after one
- Wash Your Feet Every Day
Wash your feet in warm, NOT HOT,
water. Do not soak your feet because your skin will get dry. Before
bathing or showering, test the water to make sure it is not too hot.
You should use a thermometer or your elbow. Dry your feet well.
Be sure to dry between your toes. Use talcum powder to keep the skin
dry between the toes.
- Keep the Skin Soft and Smooth
Rub a thin coat of skin lotion
or crème on the tops and bottoms of the feet. Do not put lotion
between your toes, because this might cause infection.
- Trim Your Toenails Each Week or When
Trim your toenails with clippers
after you wash and dry your feet. Trim the toenails straight across
and smooth them with an emery board or nail file. DO NOT cut into the
corners of the nail or rip off hangnails. If you’re nails are thick
or yellowed, DO NOT cut your own nails, have a foot doctor trim them.
- Wear Shoes and Socks At All Times
Wear shoes and socks at all times.
Do not walk barefoot, not even indoors. It is extremely easy to step
on something and hurt your feet. Always wear seamless socks, stockings,
and nylons with your shoes to help avoid the possibility of blisters
and sores developing. Be sure to choose seamless socks that are made
of materials that wick moisture away from your feet and absorb shock
and shear. Socks made of these materials help keep your feet dry.
Always check the insides of your shoes before putting them on.
Make sure the lining is smooth and there are no foreign objects in the
shoe, such as pebbles. Wear shoes that fit well and protect your feet.
- Protect Your Feet From Hot and Cold
Always wear shoes at the beach
or on hot pavement. Put sunscreen on the tops of your feet for protection
from the sun. Keep your feet away from radiators or open fires. DO NOT
use hot water bottle or heating pads on your feet. If your feet are
cold, wear seamless socks at night. Lined boots are good to keep
your feet warm in the winter. Choose socks carefully. DO
NOT wear socks with seams or bumpy areas. Choose padded socks
to protect your feet and make walking more comfortable. In cold
weather, check your feet often to keep your feet warm avoid frostbite.
- Keep the Blood Flowing to Your Feet
Put your feet up when you are
sitting. Wiggle your toes for 5 minutes, 2 or 3 times a day. Move
your ankles up and down and in and out to improve blood flow in your
feet and legs.
If you have high blood pressure or high
cholesterol, work with your health care team to lower it.
- Be More Active
Ask your doctor to plan an exercise program that is right for you.
Walking, dancing, swimming, and bicycling are good forms of exercise
that are easy on the feet. Avoid all activities that are hard on the
feet, such as running and jumping.
Always include a short warm-up or cool-down
period. Wear protective walking or athletic shoes that fit well and
offer good support.
- 3 out of 4 Americans experience serious
foot problems in their lifetime.
- The foot contains 26 bones, 33 joints,
107 ligaments and 19 muscles.
- 1/4 of all the bones in the human body
are down in your feet. When these bones are out of alignment, so is
the rest of the body.
- Only a small percentage of the population
is born with foot problems. It's neglect and a lack of awareness of
proper care - including ill fitting shoes that bring on problems.
- Women have about four times as many foot
problems as men. High heels are partly to blame.
- Walking is the best exercise for your
feet. It also contributes to your general health by improving circulation,
contributing to weight control, and promoting all-around well being.
- Your feet mirror your general health.
Conditions such as arthritis, diabetes, nerve and circulatory disorders
can show their initial symptoms in the feet - so foot ailments can be
your first sign of more serious medical problems.
- Arthritis is the number one cause of disability
in America. It limits everyday dressing, climbing stairs, getting in
and out of bed or walking - for about 7 million Americans.
- About 60-70% of people with diabetes have
mild to severe forms of diabetic nerve damage, which in severe forms
can lead to lower limb amputations. Approximately 90,000 people a year
lose their foot or leg to diabetes.
- There are 250,000 sweat glands in a pair
of feet. Sweat glands in the feet excrete as much as a half-pint of
moisture a day.
- Walking barefoot can cause plantar warts.
The virus enters through a cut.
- The two feet may be different sizes. Buy
shoes for the larger one.
- About 5% of Americans have toenail problems
in a given year.
- The average person takes 8,000 to 10,000
steps a day, which adds up to about 115,000 miles over a lifetime. That's
enough to go around the circumference of the earth four times.
- There are currently more websites on the
Internet having to do with foot fetishes than with foot health.
Daily Diabetic Foot Care Steps